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The present study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic (EE) extract of Artemisia herba alba on human laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) cell line and murine mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN-3) cell line in vitro . also to evaluate the effects of both extract on several cytogenetic parameters such as mitotic index , blast index , sister chromated exchang \cell , cell cycle progression and replicative index after culturing of peripheral lymphocytes in vitro.

This study represent the first attempt to use the AE of the plant as anticancer agent when the tumor bearing mice treated with different dose of the AE.

Two parameters where used to evaluate the anticancer activity of the AE , these are growth inhibition percentage (GI%) and relative tumor volume (RTV%) . the preliminary step to detect the therapeutic doses that use in treatment of transplant murine mammary adenocarcinoma in mice , was determination of LD50 in mice . they were ( 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g\kg)administrated by two different routes , intraperitoneal and per os.

The in vitro cell growth assay showed that there was time and concentration dependent cytotoxic effect of both extract on the tested lines . the result revealed that high significant effect of all concentration of both extract was achieved after 72 hrs of exposure , will the exposure of cell line for 24hrs showed significant effect on both cell lines only with highest concentration . the values of cell viability (%) reveled time dependent significant effects. There was increasing cytotoxic effect proportional to concentration of both extracts.

The cytological study performed simultaneous with cell growth assay , reverse that there was concentration dependent cytological change like patchy growth inhibition loss of confluent feature and cellular degeneration after exposure to lowest concentration ( 156.25 and 312.5g\ml). the early finding of cytolysis where seen after exposure to 625 g\ml . while the highest concentration (1250 , 2500 , and 5000 g\ml)cause sever growth inhibition with mark cytolytic features including loss of cellular outlines , larger number of dead cell and high content of cellular debris .

The result of in vivo study indicate high effectiveness of AE in reducing the tumor volume in a dose and time dependent manner .the best effective dose was 0.5 g\kg when administrated intraperitoneally or orally.

The comparison relative tumor volumes of different group reveled high significant differences between all treated group and those of untreated (control)groups.

Coincidently the histopathological changes treated and untreated tumor masses showed that necrosis and fibrosis where the predominant feature occurring with the advance time of treatment proportional to the reduction in tumor volume . in advanced time of treatment , there was only few islands of tumor tissue sequestered by massive mature fibrous tissue .

The result of cytological study showed good antiproliferative , antimutagenic effects of AE and EE. the result show significant decrease of mitosis and blast cells formation in AE and EE treated groups proportional to the concentration . there was a high significant decrease in the average of sister chromatic exchange \ cell particularly after treatment of lymphocyte with high concentration of both extracts . the result of cell cycle progression and replicating index supported the other cytological result that indicate the lowering effect of both extract on both parameters .

In conclusion , the result of this study reveled the high cytotoxic effect of Artemisia herba alba extract on Hep-2 and AMN-3 cell lines in vitro , wide safety rang in AE in mice , high anticancer effect of AE when used in treatment of anticancer tumor in mice as well as antimitotic and anti mutagenic effect on human peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro.

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